Kopaonik is situated at the border of two significant Balkans provinces, Illyrian (western and more humid) and Moesian (eastern and drier) with considerable influence of southern, mediterranean and sub-mediterranean regions and northern Pannonian regions.
Favorable hill and mountain climate with considerable quantities of the water sediment and snow cover guarantees a long period of vegetation and a creation of a large volume of biomass.
Heterogeneous geological foundation (granite, metamorphic, limestone and serpentinite) enables detainment of humidity and water reserves which are sufficient enough for life of plants and other organisms.
During severe winters, thick snow cover protects permanent and delicate parts of plants, animals and other organisms from low temperatures and frosts.
Geomorphological and orographic characteristics enable formation of the most various habitats of the plant and animal world in proportion to the height above sea - level, exposure, ground slopes and other.
Favorable natural conditions of this high mountain massif enable development of almost all the forest mountainous belts with prime and autochthonous forest vegetation wich used to spread to the very mountain tops, where at those times had two smaller areas covered with mountainous bushy and grassy vegetation of the Alpine - Nordic character.
That''s why the plant world (flora) of the Kopaonik massif is so rich and various.
It contains numerous and various species of trees, bushes, herbaceous plants, seed plants, fern, moss, lichen, mushrooms etc. A lot of them have healing properties and they are known as herb teas (Klamath weed, wild thyme, milfoil etc.).
The highest forest belt on Kopaonik placed on the altitude of 1500 m is covered with thick spruce forests (Pieceetum excelsae).
At the highest altitudes (1750 -1900 m) the spruce forests become less thick and they are replaced with low bushes where the most prevailing plants are juniper - bush (juniperus nana) and blueberry (vaccinium myrtillus) as well as the other species of the ground floor among which we should single out Gentiana Lutea, great mullein and edelweiss.
Endemic species, like Leontopodium alpinum, ought to be particularly pointed out. The higest regions are covered with grassy vegetation of pasture - grounds.
Distinct characteristic of the plant world of the high Kopaonik is represented by peat-bogs. Peat-bogs are not very thick with specific plant species of peat. Peat-bogs of Kopaonik are over 1000 years old. Here, they are called Bare. The most famous ones are: Jankova bara, Crvene bare, Barska reka.
Animal world - Fauna
The animal world of the present Kopaonik is various despite it being reduced in number, especially of the big game. Several decades ago, bear, lynx, deer, wildcat, marten, otter and falcon and horned owl used to live here.
Today, the only species left are wolf and other game such as doe, fox, hare, and also different kinds of birds - small number of horned owl, falcon, partridge, eagle, as well as the bird red crossbill which feeds on conifer seeds.
Among the insects, we should point out Sibirian grass - hopper which lives in the high cold regions of the mountain.
The brown trout lives in the clear waters and rapids of the Samokovska reka.